About the Authors

Paul E. Sax

psax@partners.org

Affiliations Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Harvard University Center for AIDS Research, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Alexis Sypek

Affiliations Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Bethany K. Berkowitz

Affiliations Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Bethany L. Morris

Affiliations Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Elena Losina

Affiliations Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Harvard University Center for AIDS Research, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

A. David Paltiel

Affiliation Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America

Kathleen A. Kelly

Affiliations Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

George R. Seage III

Affiliation Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Rochelle P. Walensky

Affiliations Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Harvard University Center for AIDS Research, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Milton C. Weinstein

Affiliation Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Joseph Eron

Affiliation Division of Infectious Disease, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

Kenneth A. Freedberg

Affiliations Harvard University Center for AIDS Research, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Competing Interests

Dr. Sax has served as a consultant to AbbVie, BMS, Gilead, GSK, Merck and Janssen, and has received grant support from BMS, Gilead, and GSK. Dr. Weinstein serves as a consultant to OptumInsight for work unrelated to the submitted research. Dr. Eron has served as a consultant to Abbvie, BMS, Gilead, GSK, Merck, Janssen and ViiV, and has received grant support from BMS, ViiV and Merck. All other authors report no conflicts of interest. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PES AS BKB BLM EL ADP KAK GRS RPW MCW JE KAF. Analyzed the data: PES AS BKB BLM EL ADP KAK GRS RPW MCW JE KAF. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: PES AS BKB BLM EL ADP KAK GRS RPW MCW JE KAF. Performed model analyses: AS BKB BLM KAK.