About the Authors

Andrea Autengruber

Contributed equally to this work with: Andrea Autengruber, Ulrich Sydlik

Affiliation IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Ulrich Sydlik

Contributed equally to this work with: Andrea Autengruber, Ulrich Sydlik

Affiliation IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Matthias Kroker

Affiliation IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Tamara Hornstein

Affiliation IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Niloofar Ale-Agha

Affiliation IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Daniel Stöckmann

Affiliation IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Andreas Bilstein

Affiliation bitop AG, Witten, Germany

Catrin Albrecht

Affiliation IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Adnana Paunel-Görgülü

Affiliation Department of Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Heinrich-Heine-University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany

Christoph V. Suschek

Affiliation Department of Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Heinrich-Heine-University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany

Jean Krutmann

Affiliations IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany, Zentrum für Molekulare Medizin der Medizinischen Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität, Düsseldorf, Germany

Klaus Unfried

klaus.unfried@uni-duesseldorf.de

Affiliation IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Competing Interests

AB is an employee of bitop AG, whose company provided funding, is the producer and provider of the compatible solutes used in this study. There are no further patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter our adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AA US KU. Performed the experiments: AA US MK NA-A DS KU. Analyzed the data: AA US CA AP-G CVS KU TH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AB CA AP-G CVS. Wrote the paper: AA US JK KU.