About the Authors

Nuno Jorge Lamas

Affiliations Project A.L.S./Jenifer Estess Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, New York, New York, United States of America, Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Stem Cell Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Translational Neuroscience Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Life and Health Sciences Research Institute, School of Health Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Minho, Portugal, ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Minho, Portugal

Bethany Johnson-Kerner

Affiliations Project A.L.S./Jenifer Estess Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, New York, New York, United States of America, Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Stem Cell Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Translational Neuroscience Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Laurent Roybon

Current address: Department of Experimental Medical Science, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden

Affiliations Project A.L.S./Jenifer Estess Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, New York, New York, United States of America, Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Stem Cell Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Translational Neuroscience Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Yoon A. Kim

Affiliation Project A.L.S./Jenifer Estess Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, New York, New York, United States of America

Alejandro Garcia-Diaz

Affiliation Project A.L.S./Jenifer Estess Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, New York, New York, United States of America

Hynek Wichterle

Affiliations Project A.L.S./Jenifer Estess Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, New York, New York, United States of America, Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Stem Cell Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Translational Neuroscience Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Christopher E. Henderson

ch2331@columbia.edu

Affiliations Project A.L.S./Jenifer Estess Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, New York, New York, United States of America, Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Stem Cell Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America, Columbia Translational Neuroscience Initiative, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NJL BJK LR HW CEH. Performed the experiments: NJL BJK YK AGD. Analyzed the data: NJL BJK LR YK AGD HW CEH. Wrote the paper: NJL HW CEH.