About the Authors

Karyn J. Catalano

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Betty A. Maddux

Affiliations Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Jaroslaw Szary

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Jack F. Youngren

Affiliation Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Ira D. Goldfine

Affiliation Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Fred Schaufele

freds@diabetes.ucsf.edu

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The work was funded by an unrestricted grant from the NovoNordisk Diabetes Innovation Award Program. The terms of this award does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KJC BAM JFY IDG FS. Performed the experiments: KJC BAM JS FS. Analyzed the data: KJC BAM FS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KJC BAM JS JFY IDG FS. Wrote the paper: KJC FS.