About the Authors

Thomas A. Odeny

odeny@uw.edu

Affiliations Center for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Maya Newman

Affiliation School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Elizabeth A. Bukusi

Affiliations Center for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

R. Scott McClelland

Affiliations Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Institute of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Craig R. Cohen

Affiliation Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Carol S. Camlin

Affiliations Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

Craig R. Cohen declares the following: Financial competing interests include but are not limited to: Paid employment or consultancy: Dr. Cohen served as a paid consultant for CerMed Inc. to help them develop a barrier contraceptive/HIV prevention device. This consultancy ended in 2012. Research grants (from any source, restricted or unrestricted): Dr. Cohen has active grants from the US NIH, CDC, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Travel grants and honoraria for speaking or participation at meetings: Dr. Cohen received a travel grant to consult with Gynuity on a study they conducted to investigate infections following medical abortion in the US. Non-financial Professional interests: Acting as an expert witness: Dr. Cohen has served as an expert witness on a case in New York City involving a malpractice suit of a woman who died after delivery due to infectious complications. Membership in a government or other advisory board: Dr. Cohen was a non-paid consultant on a WHO panel to assess the risk of hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition in women. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TAO EAB RSM CRC CSC. Performed the experiments: TAO MN RSM CSC. Analyzed the data: TAO MN RSM CSC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TAO EAB CRC. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: TAO MN EAB RSM CRC CSC. Conceptualized, designed, interpreted results: TAO EAB RSM CRC CSC. Collected and analyzed data: TAO MN RSM CSC. Drafted manuscript or revised it critically for important intellectual content: TAO MN EAB RSM CRC CSC. Read and approved the final manuscript: TAO MN EAB RSM CRC CSC.