About the Authors

Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil

Jennifer.Van-Nuil@liverpool.ac.uk

Current address: Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Department of Anthropology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan United States of America

Affiliation Rinda Ubuzima, Kigali, Rwanda

Philippe Mutwa

Affiliations Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Pediatrics, Kigali University Teaching Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda

Brenda Asiimwe-Kateera

Current address: Grants and Research Support and Training Center, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda

Affiliation Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Evelyne Kestelyn

Current address: Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Affiliations Rinda Ubuzima, Kigali, Rwanda, Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Joseph Vyankandondera

Affiliations Rinda Ubuzima, Kigali, Rwanda, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Faisal Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda

Robert Pool

Affiliation Center for Social Science and Global Health, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

John Ruhirimbura

Affiliation Treatment and Research on HIV/AIDS Center, Kigali, Rwanda

Chantal Kanakuze

Affiliation Treatment and Research on HIV/AIDS Center, Kigali, Rwanda

Peter Reiss

Affiliation Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Sibyl P. M. Geelen

Affiliations Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Utrecht University Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Janneke H. van de Wijgert

Current address: Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

JVDW and KRB are joint senior authors on this work.

Affiliations Rinda Ubuzima, Kigali, Rwanda, Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Kimberly R. Boer

JVDW and KRB are joint senior authors on this work.

Affiliations Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Utrecht University Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Biomedical Research, Epidemiology Unit, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PRM EK JV RP PR SPG JVDW KRB. Performed the experiments: PRM JR CK KRB. Analyzed the data: JIVN PRM BAK EK KRB. Wrote the paper: JIVN PRM BAK EK JV RP PR SPG JVDW KRB.