About the Authors

Siriporn Sriurairatana

Affiliation Center of Excellence for Shrimp Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Centex Shrimp), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Visanu Boonyawiwat

Affiliation Department of Farm Resources and Production Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Thailand

Warachin Gangnonngiw

Affiliation National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pratum Thani, Thailand

Chaowanee Laosutthipong

Affiliations Center of Excellence for Shrimp Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Centex Shrimp), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Jindanan Hiranchan

Affiliations Center of Excellence for Shrimp Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Centex Shrimp), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Timothy W. Flegel

sctwf@mahidol.ac.th

Affiliations Center of Excellence for Shrimp Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Centex Shrimp), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pratum Thani, Thailand

Competing Interests

The manuscript consists entirely of descriptive discoveries of an un-patentable, natural phenomenon and it describes no experimental work or unique innovations that would be needed to conceivably result in the development of a commercial product. Thus, there are no actual, intended or conceivable patents, products in development or products marketed to declare as being associated with the contents of this manuscript. The partial support from the Charoen Pokphand Company Ltd., Surathani Shrimp Farmers Club and public sectors listed above was offered simply to assist in investigations on the cause of shrimp mortality for the free benefit of the Thai and world shrimp industry and for the free, overall, benefit of the Thai and world economies. Thus, the funding provided entailed no constraints on adherence to all PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SS VB TWF. Performed the experiments: SS VB TWF WG CL JH. Analyzed the data: SS VB TWF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SS VB WG. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SS VB TWF.