About the Authors

Anne L. Baldock

Affiliation Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Sunyoung Ahn

Affiliation Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Russell Rockne

Affiliation Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Sandra Johnston

Affiliation Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Maxwell Neal

Affiliation Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

David Corwin

Affiliation Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Kamala Clark-Swanson

Affiliation Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Greg Sterin

Affiliation Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Andrew D. Trister

Affiliation Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Hani Malone

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Victoria Ebiana

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Adam M. Sonabend

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Maciej Mrugala

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Jason K. Rockhill

Affiliation Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Daniel L. Silbergeld

Affiliations Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Albert Lai

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Timothy Cloughesy

Affiliation Department of Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

Guy M. McKhann II

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Jeffrey N. Bruce

Affiliation Department of Neurosurgery, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Robert C. Rostomily

Affiliation Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Peter Canoll

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Kristin R. Swanson

kristin.swanson@northwestern.edu

Affiliations Department of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Nancy and Buster Alvord Brain Tumor Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Northwestern Brain Tumor Institute, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ALB KRS. Performed the experiments: ALB KRS. Analyzed the data: ALB SA MN DC ADT KRS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RR SJ DC KCS GS HM VE AMS MM JKR DLS AL TC GMM JNB RCR PC. Wrote the paper: ALB RR KRS.