About the Authors

Dave Shutler

Affiliation Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada

Krista Head

Affiliation Agri-Foods Branch, Forestry and Agri-Foods Agency, Department of Natural Resources, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Karen L. Burgher-MacLellan

Affiliation Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Canada

Megan J. Colwell

Affiliation Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada

Abby L. Levitt

Affiliation Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Nancy Ostiguy

Affiliation Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Geoffrey R. Williams

geoffrey.r.williams@gmail.com

Affiliations Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada, Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, Institute of Bee Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, Agroscope, Swiss Bee Research Centre, Bern, Switzerland

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DS GW. Performed the experiments: KH KBM MC AL NO GW. Analyzed the data: DS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KH KBM NO GW. Wrote the paper: DS KBM AL GW.