About the Authors

David Smith

dsmith37@qub.ac.uk

Affiliations School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, County Antrim, United Kingdom

Peter Leary

Affiliation School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom

Mark Bendall

Affiliation School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom

Edmund Flach

Affiliation Zoological Society of London, London, Greater London, United Kingdom

Rachel Jones

Affiliation Zoological Society of London, London, Greater London, United Kingdom

Michael Sweet

Affiliations School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom, Biological Sciences Research Group, University of Derby, Derby, Derbyshire, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DS EF RJ MS. Performed the experiments: DS PL MB EF RJ. Analyzed the data: DS PL MS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MB EF RJ MS. Wrote the paper: DS.