About the Authors

Giulio Disanto

Contributed equally to this work with: Giulio Disanto, Ruth Dobson

Affiliation Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom

Ruth Dobson

Contributed equally to this work with: Giulio Disanto, Ruth Dobson

Affiliation Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom

Julia Pakpoor

Affiliation Oxford medical school, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Ramyiadarsini I. Elangovan

Affiliation Oxford medical school, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom

Rocco Adiutori

Affiliation Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom

Jens Kuhle

Affiliation Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom

Gavin Giovannoni

g.giovannoni@qmul.ac.uk

Affiliation Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

GD, RD, JP, RA, RIE report no competing interests. JK is supported by an ECTRIMS Research Fellowship Programme and by the “Forschungsfonds” of the University of Basel, Switzerland and has received research support from the Swiss MS Society, Swiss ALS Society, Protagen AG, Roche and Novartis and served in scientific advisory boards for Genzyme/Sanofi-Aventis, Merck Serono and Novartis Pharma. GG serves on scientific advisory boards for Merck Serono and Biogen Idec and Vertex Pharmaceuticals; served on the editorial board of Multiple Sclerosis; has received speaker honoraria from Bayer Schering Pharma, Merck Serono, Biogen Idec, Pfizer Inc, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.–sanofiaventis, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Genzyme Corporation, Ironwood, and Novartis; has served as a consultant for Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec,GlaxoSmithKline, Merck Serono, Protein Discovery Laboratories, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.–sanofi-aventis, UCB, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, GW Pharma, Novartis, and FivePrime; serves on the speakers bureau for Merck Serono; and has received research support from Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec, Merck Serono, Novartis, UCB, Merz Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.–sanofi-aventis, GW Pharma, and Ironwood. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GD RD GG. Performed the experiments: RD. Analyzed the data: GD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RD GD. Wrote the paper: GD. Critical revision of the manuscript: RD JP JK RIE RA GG. Study supervision: GG.