About the Authors

Jenny E. Ostergren

Affiliation Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

Rachel R. Hammer

Affiliation Biomedical Ethics Research Unit and Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Molly J. Dingel

Affiliation Center for Learning Innovation, University of Minnesota Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Barbara A. Koenig

Affiliation Departments of Social & Behavioral Sciences, and Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Jennifer B. McCormick


Affiliation Divisions of General Internal Medicine & Health Care Policy Research, and Biomedical Ethics Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JEO MJD BAK JBM. Performed the experiments: JEO JBM. Analyzed the data: JEO RRH JBM. Wrote the paper: JEO RRH MJD BAK JBM.