About the Authors

Surendran Thavagnanam

Contributed equally to this work with: Surendran Thavagnanam, Jeremy C. Parker

Affiliation Paediatric Department, University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia

Jeremy C. Parker

Contributed equally to this work with: Surendran Thavagnanam, Jeremy C. Parker

Affiliation Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

Michael E. McBrien

Affiliation Department of Anaesthetics, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

Grzegorz Skibinski

Affiliation Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

Michael D Shields

m.shields@qub.ac.uk

These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, Department of Paediatrics, Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

Liam G. Heaney

These authors also contributed equally to this work.

Affiliation Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

Liam G. Heaney received grant funding from Medimmune, Novartis UK, Roche/Genentech Inc, and Glaxo Smith Kline, has taken part in Advisory Boards and given lectures at meetings supported by Glaxo Smith Kline, Merck Sharpe & Dohme, Nycomed, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis and Astra Zeneca. Michael David Shields has received support funding to attend International Respiratory meetings (Astra Zeneca, Chiesi, Novartis, Boehringer Ingelheim and Glaxo Smith Kline) and has taken part in asthma clinical trials (GSK, Schering Pough and Roche/Genentech) for which his Institution was remunerated. Michael David Shields has received honoraria for speaking at educational events from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), MerckSharp&Dohme (MSD), Novartis, AstraZeneca, Alk Abello. Over the last 5 years Michael David Shields has received sponsorship to attend the ERS and EAACI annual meetings from GSK, MSD, AstraZeneca, Novartis, Alk Abello. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ST JCP GS MDS LGH. Performed the experiments: ST JCP. Analyzed the data: ST JCP MDS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MEMcB. Wrote the paper: ST JCP MDS LGH.