About the Authors

Ronald Ching Wan Ma

Contributed equally to this work with: Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Heung Man Lee, Vincent Kwok Lim Lam

Affiliations Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Heung Man Lee

Contributed equally to this work with: Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Heung Man Lee, Vincent Kwok Lim Lam

Affiliations Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Vincent Kwok Lim Lam

Contributed equally to this work with: Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Heung Man Lee, Vincent Kwok Lim Lam

Affiliations Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Claudia Ha Ting Tam

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Janice Siu Ka Ho

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Hai-Lu Zhao

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Jing Guan

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Alice Pik Shan Kong

Affiliations Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Eric Lau

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Guozhi Zhang

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Andrea Luk

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Ying Wang

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Stephen Kwok Wing Tsui

Affiliation School of Biomedical Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Ting Fung Chan

Affiliation School of Life Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Cheng Hu

Affiliation Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Key Clinical Center for Metabolic Disease, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

Wei Ping Jia

Affiliation Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Key Clinical Center for Metabolic Disease, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

Kyong Soo Park

Affiliation Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology and Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Chongno-gu, Seoul, Korea

Hong Kyu Lee

Current address: Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji University, Hangeulbiseok-gil, Hagye-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul, Korea

Affiliation Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology and Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Chongno-gu, Seoul, Korea

Hiroto Furuta

Affiliation First Department of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

Kishio Nanjo

Affiliation First Department of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan

E. Shyong Tai

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Daniel Peng-Keat Ng

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Nelson Leung Sang Tang

Affiliations Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Jean Woo

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Ping Chung Leung

Affiliation Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Hong Xue

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Jeffrey Wong

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Po Sing Leung

Affiliation School of Biomedical Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Terrence C. K. Lau

Current address: Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Affiliation School of Biomedical Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Peter Chun Yip Tong

Affiliations Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Gang Xu

Affiliations Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Maggie Chor Yin Ng

Current address: Center for Diabetes Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America.

Affiliation Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Wing Yee So

Affiliations Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Juliana Chung Ngor Chan

jchan@cuhk.edu.hk

Affiliations Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong Institute of Diabetes and Obesity, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RCWM WYS MCYN JCNC. Performed the experiments: JG, J. Wong, HML, PSL, TCKL. Analyzed the data: RCWM, WYS, HML, CHTT, JSKH, YW, VL, EL, GZ, CHTT, HLZ, JG, HX, J. Wong, PSL, TCKL, JCNC. Wrote the paper: RCWM, VL, HML, CHTT, JSKH, JCNC. Bioinformatics and functional analyses: VL, EL, GZ, HML, CHTT, HLZ, JG, HX, J. Wong, PSL, TCKL. Researched data: CH, WPJ, KSP, HKL, HF, KN, EST, DPKN, NT, J. Woo, APSK, PCT, PCL. Critical revision of the manuscript: SKWT TFC AL WYS GX CH KSP HF EST WPJ HKL KN.