About the Authors

Akiko Shoji

akikosho@gmail.com

Affiliation Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Kyle H. Elliott

Affiliation University of Manitoba, Department of Zoology, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Kathleen M. O’Reilly

Affiliation University of Portland, Department of Biology, Portland, Oregon, United States of America

Anthony J. Gaston

Affiliations Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, University of Ottawa, Department of Biology, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AS KHE AJG. Performed the experiments: AS AJG. Analyzed the data: AS KHE KMO AJG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AS KHE KMO AJG. Wrote the paper: AS KHE KMO AJG.