About the Authors

Victoria Geenes

Affiliation Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Anita Lövgren-Sandblom

Affiliation Departments of Clinical Chemistry and Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Lisbet Benthin

Affiliation Departments of Clinical Chemistry and Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Dominic Lawrance

Affiliation Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Jenny Chambers

Affiliation Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Vinita Gurung

Affiliation School of Human Development, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Jim Thornton

Affiliation School of Human Development, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Lucy Chappell

Affiliation Women's Health Academic Centre, King's College London and King's Health Partners, London, United Kingdom

Erum Khan

Affiliation Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Peter Dixon

Affiliations Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Women's Health Academic Centre, King's College London and King's Health Partners, London, United Kingdom

Hanns-Ulrich Marschall

Affiliation Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Catherine Williamson

catherine.williamson@kcl.ac.uk

Affiliations Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Women's Health Academic Centre, King's College London and King's Health Partners, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

Dr. Lucy Chappell is on the editorial board of PLOS ONE. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: V. Geenes HUM CW. Performed the experiments: V. Geenes ALS. Analyzed the data: V. Geenes ALS LB DL HUM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: V. Geenes JC V. Gurung JT LC EK PD . Wrote the paper: V. Geenes HUM CW.