About the Authors

Carmen Parola

Contributed equally to this work with: Carmen Parola, Laura Salogni, Xenia Vaira

Affiliation Dept. Molecular and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Laura Salogni

Contributed equally to this work with: Carmen Parola, Laura Salogni, Xenia Vaira

Affiliation Dept. Molecular and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Xenia Vaira

Contributed equally to this work with: Carmen Parola, Laura Salogni, Xenia Vaira

Affiliation Dept. Molecular and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Sara Scutera

Affiliation Dept. Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy

Paolo Somma

Affiliation Dept. Molecular and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Valentina Salvi

Affiliation Dept. Molecular and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Tiziana Musso

Affiliation Dept. Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy

Giuseppe Tabbia

Affiliation Pulmonary Division, Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, Torino, Italy

Marco Bardessono

Affiliation Pulmonary Division, Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, Torino, Italy

Christian Pasquali

Affiliation Preclinical Research, OM Pharma SA, Meyrin 2/Geneva, Switzerland

Alberto Mantovani

Affiliations Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy, Dept. Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy

Silvano Sozzani

Affiliations Dept. Molecular and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy

Daniela Bosisio

bosisio@med.unibs.it

Affiliation Dept. Molecular and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Competing Interests

The authors have read the journal's policy and have the following financial conflict: this work was partially funded by Viforpharma, who initially took part in general research planning. The authors also declare that one of the authors, namely Dr. Christian Pasquali, is affiliated to OM Pharma SA, the commercial company that produces and sells OM-85. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DB AM SS. Performed the experiments: C. Parola LS XV SC PS VS TM. Analyzed the data: C. Parola LS PS VS TM DB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GT MB C. Pasquali. Wrote the paper: SS DB.