About the Authors

Peter A. Lindsey

plindsey@panthera.org

Affiliations Lion Program, Panthera, New York, New York, United States of America, Mammal Research Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

Jonathan Barnes

Affiliation Design & Development Services, Windhoek, Khomas Region, Namibia

Vincent Nyirenda

Affiliation Zambia Wildlife Authority, Chilanga, Lusaka Province, Zambia

Belinda Pumfrett

Affiliation Kafue Trust, Lusaka, Lusaka Province, Zambia

Craig J. Tambling

Affiliation Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Department of Zoology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape, South Africa

W. Andrew Taylor

Affiliation Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

Michael t’Sas Rolfes

Affiliation Independent consultant, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa

Competing Interests

One of the authors (JB) is employed by a commercial company, Design and Development Services. Another of the authors (PL) was employed as a consultant during the research which provided the data used to compile this paper. However, the commissioning agency had no influence on the research process and employment did not affect the objectivity of the findings, interpretation of the data or opinions expressed in the manuscript. This does not affect the authors' adherence to all the PLOS One policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PL JB VN BP CT WT MT. Performed the experiments: PL VN BP WT. Analyzed the data: PL JB CT WT. Wrote the paper: PL JB VN BP CT WT MT.