About the Authors

Jen-Chyong Wang

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Noah Spiegel

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Sarah Bertelsen

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Nhung Le

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Nicholas McKenna

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

John P. Budde

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Oscar Harari

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Manav Kapoor

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Andrew Brooks

Affiliation Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, United States of America

Dana Hancock

Affiliation Department of Behavioral Health Epidemiology, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America

Jay Tischfield

Affiliation Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, United States of America

Tatiana Foroud

Affiliation Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

Laura J. Bierut

Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Joe Henry Steinbach

Affiliation Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Howard J. Edenberg

Affiliations Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

Bryan J. Traynor

Affiliation Neuromuscular Diseases Research Unit, Laboratory of Neurogenetics, NIA, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Alison M. Goate

goate@wustl.edu

Affiliations Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America, Department of Genetics and Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America

Competing Interests

Drs. LJ Bierut, AM Goate and JC Wang are listed as inventors on the patent “Markers for Addiction” (US20070258898) covering the use of certain SNPs in determining the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of addiction. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JCW AMG. Performed the experiments: JCW NS NM JPB. Analyzed the data: JCW NS SB NL OH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AB JT BJT. Wrote the paper: JCW JHS HJE AMG. Interpreted data: JCW LJB HJE AMG. Revised the manuscript: JCW MK DH TF JHS HJE AMG.