About the Authors

Koji Miyahara

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Kazuhiro Nouso

nouso@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp

Affiliations Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan, Department of Molecular Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Shunsuke Saito

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Sakiko Hiraoka

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Keita Harada

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Sakuma Takahashi

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Yuki Morimoto

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Sayo Kobayashi

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Fusao Ikeda

Affiliations Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan, Department of Molecular Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Yasuhiro Miyake

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Hidenori Shiraha

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Akinobu Takaki

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Hiroyuki Okada

Affiliations Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan, Department of Endoscopy, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Maho Amano

Affiliations Field of Drug Discovery Research, Faculty of Advanced Life Science & Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, Medicinal Chemistry Pharmaceuticals, Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Kazuko Hirose

Affiliation Field of Drug Discovery Research, Faculty of Advanced Life Science & Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Shin-Ichiro Nishimura

Affiliations Field of Drug Discovery Research, Faculty of Advanced Life Science & Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, Medicinal Chemistry Pharmaceuticals, Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Kazuhide Yamamoto

Affiliation Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

Competing Interests

Shin-Ichiro Nishimura is employed by Hokkaido University as a professor and is Chief Scientific Officer in commercial company, Medical Chemistry Pharmaceuticals LLC. Shin-Ichiro Nishimura is a stockholder and is paid for the consultancy. Maho Amano is also employed by Hokkaido University as an assistant professor and is Director of Technology in the same commercial company, and has no financial competing interests. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KN S-IN KY. Performed the experiments: MA K. Hirose. Analyzed the data: KM KN AT HO. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FI Y. Miyake HS. Wrote the paper: KM KN. Acquired the clinical data: SS SH K. Harada ST Y. Morimoto SK.