About the Authors

Rosa Alati

r.alati@sph.uq.edu.au

Affiliations School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

George Davey Smith

Affiliations School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Sarah J. Lewis

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Kapil Sayal

Affiliation Developmental Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Elizabeth S. Draper

Affiliation Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Jean Golding

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Robert Fraser

Affiliation Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

Ron Gray

Affiliation National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RA RG GDS. Analyzed the data: RA. Wrote the paper: RA RG. Critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content: RG GDS SJL KS JG ESD RF. Acquired data: JG. Approved the final version of the manuscript: RG GDS SJL KS JG ESD RF.