About the Authors

Soichirou Satoh

Affiliations Graduate School of Life and Environmental Science, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto, Japan, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

Mamoru Mimuro

Affiliation Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Ayumi Tanaka

ayumi@pop.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp

Affiliations Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sapporo, Japan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SS MM AT. Performed the experiments: SS. Analyzed the data: SS MM AT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SS MM AT. Wrote the paper: SS MM AT.