About the Authors

Adeladza K. Amegah

adeladza.amegah@oulu.fi

Affiliations Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Department of Human Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Radel Consulting, Accra, Ghana, Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

Obed K. Damptey

Affiliation Department of Human Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

Gideon A. Sarpong

Affiliation Department of Human Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

Emmanuel Duah

Affiliation Department of Human Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

David J. Vervoorn

Affiliation Department of Human Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

Jouni J. K. Jaakkola

Affiliations Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Respiratory Medicine Unit, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland

Competing Interests

The authors declare that Radel Consulting, the firm that supported our study is a sole proprietorship firm founded by the first author (Adeladza Kofi Amegah). There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AKA OKD GAS ED DJV. Performed the experiments: AKA OKD GAS ED DJV. Analyzed the data: AKA JJKJ. Wrote the paper: AKA JJKJ.