About the Authors

Robert E. Neal II

Robert.Neal@alfred.org.au

Affiliations Department of Radiology, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Bioelectromechanical Systems Laboratory, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

John H. Rossmeisl Jr

Affiliation Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

John L. Robertson

Affiliation Center for Comparative Oncology, VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

Christopher B. Arena

Affiliation Bioelectromechanical Systems Laboratory, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

Erica M. Davis

Affiliation Center for Comparative Oncology, VA-MD Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

Ravi N. Singh

Affiliation Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America

Jonathan Stallings

Affiliation Department of Statistics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

Rafael V. Davalos

Affiliation Bioelectromechanical Systems Laboratory, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

Competing Interests

REN, CBA, JHR, JLR, and RVD have the following pending patents on various aspects relating to irreversible electroporation, some of which have been licensed to Angiodynamics, Inc.: Device and Method for Electroporation Based Treatment of a Stenosis of a Tubular Body Part, 61/672,183; Treatment Planning for Electroporation-Based Therapies, 12/906,923 and PCT/US2010/053077; Irreversible Electroporation to Treat Aberrant Cell Masses, 12/491,151; System and Method for Interactively Planning and Controlling a Treatment of a Patient with a Medical Treatment Device, 12/751,854 and PCT/US2010/029243; Irreversible electroporation using Nanoparticles, 2010/331,758; and Irreversible Electroporation to Create Tissue Scaffolds, 2009/269,317. RVD is also an author of Tissue ablation with irreversible electroporation, US 8,048,067 B2 and PCT/US2004/043477. The patents outline various aspects of using IRE to treat tumors and in tissue engineering, but make no specific mention of the immune system in relation to the topics discussed in this report. In addition, REN and RVD received research funding for projects unrelated to the one presented here from Angiodynamics, Inc. RVD has previously served an advisory role for Angiodynamics, Inc. There are no further patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: REN JHR JLR RVD RS ED CBA. Performed the experiments: REN JLR CBA ED. Analyzed the data: REN JHR RS JS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RS RVD JLR JHR. Wrote the paper: REN JHR JLR CBA RS JS RVD.