About the Authors

Ali Reza Kasmati

Affiliation University of Leicester, Department of Biology, Leicester, United Kingdom

Mats Töpel

Contributed equally to this work with: Mats Töpel, Nadir Zaman Khan

Affiliation University of Leicester, Department of Biology, Leicester, United Kingdom

Nadir Zaman Khan

Contributed equally to this work with: Mats Töpel, Nadir Zaman Khan

Affiliation University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden

Ramesh Patel

Affiliation University of Leicester, Department of Biology, Leicester, United Kingdom

Qihua Ling

Affiliation University of Leicester, Department of Biology, Leicester, United Kingdom

Sazzad Karim

Affiliation University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden

Henrik Aronsson

Affiliation University of Gothenburg, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden

Paul Jarvis

rpj3@le.ac.uk

Affiliation University of Leicester, Department of Biology, Leicester, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: PJ MT HA. Performed the experiments: ARK MT NZK RP QL SK. Analyzed the data: ARK MT NZK RP QL SK HA PJ. Wrote the paper: PJ MT ARK HA. Required Statement: PJ.