About the Authors

Emelda A. Okiro

eokiro@nairobi.kemri-wellcome.org

Affiliations Malaria Public Health Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust-University of Oxford Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Lawrence N. Kazembe

Affiliations Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chancellor College, University of Malawi, Zomba, Malawi, Department of Statistics, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia

Caroline W. Kabaria

Affiliation Malaria Public Health Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust-University of Oxford Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya

Jeffrey Ligomeka

Affiliation Records Department, Zomba Central Hospital, Zomba, Malawi

Abdisalan M. Noor

Affiliations Malaria Public Health Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust-University of Oxford Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Doreen Ali

Affiliation National Malaria control Programme, Ministry of Health, Lilongwe, Malawi

Robert W. Snow

Affiliations Malaria Public Health Department, Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust-University of Oxford Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors' have read the journal's policy and have the following conflicts: RWS has received funding from Novartis for chairing meetings of national control programmes in Africa and EAO has received honoraria from Novartis at their regional best practice workshops. RWS has received a research grant from Pfizer. All other authors have no conflicts of interest. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Responsible for ensuring smooth running of the study and reviewed the manuscript was involved in the initial set up of the study and contributed to earlier drafts of the manuscript: LNK. Assisted in creating the processes and procedures necessary to carrying out of the study and reviewed earlier drafts of the proposal and manuscript: DA. Conceived and designed the experiments: EO RWS. Performed the experiments: CWK AMN JL. Analyzed the data: EO CWK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DA. Wrote the paper: EO LNK RWS CWK.