About the Authors

Himanshu Kaul

Affiliation Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Zhanfeng Cui

Affiliation Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Yiannis Ventikos

yiannis.ventikos@eng.ox.ac.uk

Affiliation Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Developed the coupling environment for the multiparadigm modelling platform, conducted simulations and contributed to the manuscript: HK. Led the research and provided guidance regarding biological phenomena at play and specific mechanisms pertinent to existing and future bioreactors: ZC. Led the research, provided guidance regarding the computational modelling aspects of the platform, reviewed and expanded the results obtained and contributed to the manuscript preparation: YV. Conceived and designed the experiments: HK ZC YV. Performed the experiments: HK. Analyzed the data: HK YV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HK ZC YV. Wrote the paper: HK ZC YV.