About the Authors

Martin Edwards

maed@sahfos.ac.uk

Affiliations Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, United Kingdom, Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, United Kingdom

Gregory Beaugrand

Affiliation Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences' UMR LOG CNRS 8187, Station Marine, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille 1, Wimereux, France

Pierre Helaouët

Affiliation Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, United Kingdom

Jürgen Alheit

Affiliation Baltic Sea Research Institute, University of Rostock, Warnemüende, Germany

Stephen Coombs

Affiliation Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: ME. Performed the experiments: GB PH. Analyzed the data: ME GB PH JA SC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: ME GB PH JA SC. Wrote the paper: ME GB PH JA SC.