About the Authors

Chih-Ming Hung

Affiliations Bell Museum and Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America, Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan

Rong-Chien Lin

Affiliation Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan

Jui-Hua Chu

Affiliation Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan

Chia-Fen Yeh

Affiliation Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan

Chiou-Ju Yao

Affiliation Department of Biology, National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan

Shou-Hsien Li

t43028@ntnu.edu.tw

Affiliation Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SHL C-JY. Performed the experiments: C-MH R-CL J-HC C-FY C-JY. Analyzed the data: R-CL J-HC C-FY SHL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: C-JY. Wrote the paper: C-MH SHL.