About the Authors

Jacques Amar

amar.j@chu-toulouse.fr

Affiliation INSERM U1048, Institute of Research on Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France

Céline Lange

Affiliations INSERM, CESP Centre for research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Epidemiology of Diabetes, Obesity and Chronic Kidney Disease Over the Lifecourse, Villejuif, France, University Paris Sud 11, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France

Gaëlle Payros

Affiliation Bio-Medical Research Federative Institute of Toulouse, Toulouse, France

Celine Garret

Affiliation Bio-Medical Research Federative Institute of Toulouse, Toulouse, France

Chantal Chabo

Affiliations INSERM U1048, Institute of Research on Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France, Bio-Medical Research Federative Institute of Toulouse, Toulouse, France

Olivier Lantieri

Affiliation IRSA, La Riche, France

Michael Courtney

Affiliation VAIOMER SAS, Toulouse, France

Michel Marre

Affiliations Service d'endocrinologie-diabète-nutrition, Groupe Hospitalier Bichat-Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France, INSERM U695, Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, Paris, France

Marie Aline Charles

Affiliations INSERM, CESP Centre for research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Epidemiology of Diabetes, Obesity and Chronic Kidney Disease Over the Lifecourse, Villejuif, France, University Paris Sud 11, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France

Beverley Balkau

Affiliations INSERM, CESP Centre for research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Epidemiology of Diabetes, Obesity and Chronic Kidney Disease Over the Lifecourse, Villejuif, France, University Paris Sud 11, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France

Rémy Burcelin

Membership of the D.E.S.I.R. Study Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.

Affiliations INSERM U1048, Institute of Research on Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France, Bio-Medical Research Federative Institute of Toulouse, Toulouse, France

Competing Interests

The authors received funding from commercial sources: Lilly, Novartis Pharma and Sanofi-Aventis, Ardix Medical, Bayer Diagnostics, Becton Dickinson, Cardionics, Merck Santé, Novo Nordisk, Pierre Fabre, Roche, Topcon. The authors also declare that Remy Burcelin, Chantal Chabo, Beverley Balkau and Jacques Amar are listed as coinventors on patents held by the National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM) that relate to the use of bacterial DNA in metabolic diseases. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JA RB BB. Performed the experiments: CL GP CG CC . Analyzed the data: OL MM MC MAC. Wrote the paper: JA CL RB MM BB.