About the Authors

Stefano Balducci

Contributed equally to this work with: Stefano Balducci, Silvano Zanuso

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy, Metabolic Fitness Association, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy

Silvano Zanuso

Contributed equally to this work with: Stefano Balducci, Silvano Zanuso

Affiliation School of Science, University of Greenwich, London, United Kingdom

Patrizia Cardelli

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy

Laura Salvi

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy

Alessandra Bazuro

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy

Luca Pugliese

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy

Carla Maccora

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy

Carla Iacobini

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Metabolic Fitness Association, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy

Francesco G. Conti

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy

Antonio Nicolucci

Affiliation Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Epidemiology, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, S. Maria Imbaro, Chieti, Italy

Giuseppe Pugliese

giuseppe.pugliese@uniroma1.it

Affiliations Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Diabetes Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy

for the Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES) Investigators

Membership of the IDES is available as supporting information (see The IDES Investigators S1).

Competing Interests

The authors received funding from Lifescan SrL, Novo Nordisk Ltd, Bristol Myers Squibb Italy, Technogym SpA and Cosmed Sr and they have no other relevant declarations relating to employment, consultancy, patents, products in development or marketed products, etc. The authors' also confirm that this does not alter their adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SB SZ AN GP. Performed the experiments: SB SZ PC LS AB LP CM CI FC GP. Analyzed the data: SB SZ GP. Wrote the paper: GP. Edited the manuscript: SB SZ AN. Contributed to the discussion: PC LS AB LP CM CI FC.