About the Authors

Kristy L. Cloyd

Affiliations Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Ismail El-Hamamsy

Affiliation Division of Cardiac Surgery, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Canada

Suwimon Boonrungsiman

Affiliations Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Martin Hedegaard

Affiliations Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Eileen Gentleman

Affiliations Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Padmini Sarathchandra

Affiliation Harefield Heart Science Centre, Imperial College London, Harefield, Middlesex, United Kingdom

Francesca Colazzo

Affiliation Harefield Heart Science Centre, Imperial College London, Harefield, Middlesex, United Kingdom

Molly M. Gentleman

Affiliation Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America

Magdi H. Yacoub

Affiliation Harefield Heart Science Centre, Imperial College London, Harefield, Middlesex, United Kingdom

Adrian H. Chester

Affiliation Harefield Heart Science Centre, Imperial College London, Harefield, Middlesex, United Kingdom

Molly M. Stevens

m.stevens@imperial.ac.uk

Affiliations Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KLC IE EG MHY AHC MMS. Performed the experiments: KLC IE SB EG PS FC MMG. Analyzed the data: KLC IE SB MH EG FC MMG AHC MMS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KLC IE MH EG MMG MHY AHC MMS. Wrote the paper: KLC.