About the Authors

Joel P. Heath


Affiliation Mathematical Biology, Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

William A. Montevecchi

Affiliation Cognitive and Behavioural Ecology Programme, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada

Daniel Esler

Affiliation Centre for Wildlife Ecology, Simon Fraser University, Delta, British Columbia, Canada

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JPH. Performed the experiments: JPH. Analyzed the data: JPH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JPH. Wrote the paper: JPH WAM DE.