About the Authors

Nick J. B. Isaac

Affiliation Natural Environment Research Council Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

David W. Redding

Affiliation University College London, London, United Kingdom

Helen M. Meredith

Affiliation Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology and Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London, United Kingdom

Kamran Safi


Affiliations Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Department for Migration and Immuno-ecology, Radolfzell, Germany, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NJBI. Performed the experiments: NJBI HM DWR. Analyzed the data: NJBI DWR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DWR. Wrote the paper: KS NJBI DWR HM.