About the Authors

Matthew E. Dupre

matthew.dupre@duke.edu

Affiliations Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Danan Gu

Affiliation Population Division, United Nations, New York, New York, United States of America

James W. Vaupel

Affiliation Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MED JWV. Performed the experiments: MED DG. Analyzed the data: MED DG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MED DG. Wrote the paper: MED DG JWV.