About the Authors

Jessica Cunningham

Affiliations Department of Radiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America, Department of Mathematical Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

Veronica Estrella

Affiliation Department of Radiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

Mark Lloyd

Affiliation Department of Analytic Microscopy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

Robert Gillies

Affiliations Department of Radiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America, Department of Mathematical Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

B. Roy Frieden

Affiliation College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

Robert Gatenby

Robert.Gatenby@Moffitt.org

Affiliations Department of Radiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America, Department of Mathematical Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RAG BRF RJG. Performed the experiments: VE ML. Analyzed the data: JC RAG RJG. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RJG. Wrote the paper: JC RAG ML VE. Designed and performed the computer simulations: JC.