About the Authors

Jan T. Lifjeld

j.t.lifjeld@nhm.uio.no

Affiliation Natural History Museum, National Centre for Biosystematics (NCB), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Terje Laskemoen

Affiliation Natural History Museum, National Centre for Biosystematics (NCB), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Oddmund Kleven

Current address: Bioforsk Svanhovd, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Svanvik, Norway

Affiliation Natural History Museum, National Centre for Biosystematics (NCB), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

A. Tiril M. Pedersen

Affiliation Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway

Helene M. Lampe

Affiliation Department of Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Geir Rudolfsen

Affiliation Department for Environmental Radioactivity, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Tromsø, Norway

Tim Schmoll

Affiliation Evolutionary Biology, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany

Tore Slagsvold

Affiliation Department of Biology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JTL TL OK. Performed the experiments: JTL TL OK ATMP HML T. Schmoll T. Slagsvold. Analyzed the data: JTL TL OK ATMP GR T. Schmoll. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JTL TL OK ATMP HML GR T. Schmoll T. Slagsvold. Wrote the paper: JTL TL OK ATMP HML GR T. Schmoll T. Slagsvold.