About the Authors

Carri Westgarth

carri.westgarth@liverpool.ac.uk

Affiliation Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Jihong Liu

Affiliation Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America

Jon Heron

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Andrew R. Ness

Affiliation School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Peter Bundred

Affiliation Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Rosalind M. Gaskell

Affiliation Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Alexander J. German

Affiliation Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Sandra McCune

Affiliation WALTHAM® Centre for Pet Nutrition, Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, United Kingdom

Susan Dawson

Affiliation Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Neston, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have read the journal's policy and have the following conflicts: 1) CW, SD, RMG, PB, and AJG have institutional support via a grant from Mars Petcare for the submitted work; the position of CW is funded from this grant; (2) the position of AJG at the institution is funded by Royal Canin, a subsidiary of Mars Petcare, and he has also received other research grants from Mars Petcare (3) SM is an employee (Research Manager) of WALTHAM, a division of Mars Inc; (4) AN, JH and JL received no institutional or personal funding for this work; (5) no spouses, partners, or children have financial relationships that may be relevant to the submitted work; and (6) no authors have non-financial interests that may be relevant to the submitted work. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CW SD RMG AJG PB SM. Analyzed the data: CW. Wrote the paper: CW SD RMG AJG PB JL AN JH SM. Provided data: JH. Advised on data analysis: JL JH AN.