About the Authors

Sophie E. F. Evison

Affiliation Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Katherine E. Roberts

Affiliation Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Lynn Laurenson

Affiliation National Bee Unit, Food and Environment Research Agency, York, United Kingdom

Stéphane Pietravalle

Affiliation National Bee Unit, Food and Environment Research Agency, York, United Kingdom

Jeffrey Hui

Affiliation Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

Jacobus C. Biesmeijer

Affiliations Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity NCB Naturalis, Leiden, The Netherlands

Judith E. Smith

Affiliation School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, United Kingdom

Giles Budge

Affiliation National Bee Unit, Food and Environment Research Agency, York, United Kingdom

William O. H. Hughes

w.o.h.hughes@leeds.ac.uk

Affiliation Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: WOHH JCB JES GB. Performed the experiments: SEFE KER LL. Analyzed the data: WOHH SP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JH. Wrote the paper: WOHH SEFE KER SP GB JCB JES.