About the Authors

Rousseau Djouaka

Affiliation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cotonou, Benin

Helen Irving

Affiliation Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Zainab Tukur

Affiliation Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Charles S. Wondji

c.s.wondji@liverpool.ac.uk

Affiliation Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CSW. Performed the experiments: RD HI ZT CSW. Analyzed the data: CSW. Wrote the paper: CSW RD.