About the Authors

Michelle Y. Liu

Contributed equally to this work with: Michelle Y. Liu, Weiyong Liu

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Weiyong Liu

Contributed equally to this work with: Michelle Y. Liu, Weiyong Liu

Affiliations State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China, Wuhan Institutes of Biotechnology, Wuhan East Lake High Technology Development Zone, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Jun Luo

Affiliation State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Yingle Liu

Affiliations State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China, Wuhan Institutes of Biotechnology, Wuhan East Lake High Technology Development Zone, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Yang Zhu

Affiliation Taizhou Institute of Virology, Jiangsu Affynigen Biotechnologies, Inc., Taizhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China

Hillary Berman

Affiliation Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America

Jianguo Wu

jwu@whu.edu.cn

Affiliations State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China, Wuhan Institutes of Biotechnology, Wuhan East Lake High Technology Development Zone, Wuhan, People's Republic of China

Competing Interests

Yang Zhu declares an affiliation to Jiangsu Affynigen Biotechnologies, Inc., Taizhou, Jiangsu, China. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MYL WL JL YL YZ HB JW. Performed the experiments: MYL WL JL YL YZ. Analyzed the data: MYL WL JL YL YZ HB JW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MYL YL HB JW. Wrote the paper: MYL WL HB JW. Designed the experiments in this study: YL JW. Obtained clinical samples: MYL WL. Sequence analysis: YZ.