About the Authors

Malcolm G. Semple

m.g.semple@liverpool.ac.uk

Affiliation Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

David C. Taylor-Robinson

Affiliation Department of Public Health and Policy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Steven Lane

Affiliation Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Rosalind L. Smyth

Affiliation Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

MGS in an Academic Editor for PloS ONE; RLS is a Board Member of PLoS. The other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MGS RLS. Performed the experiments: MGS DCT-R. Analyzed the data: MGS DCT-R SL RLS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MGS DCT-R SL. Wrote the paper: MGS DCT-R SL RLS.