About the Authors

Sarah J. Lewis

S.J.Lewis@bristol.ac.uk

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Ricardo Araya

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

George Davey Smith

Affiliations School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology (CAiTE), School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Rachel Freathy

Affiliations MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology (CAiTE), School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

David Gunnell

Affiliation School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Tom Palmer

Affiliations School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, MRC Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology (CAiTE), School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Marcus Munafò

Affiliation School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GDS SJL MM. Performed the experiments: SJL GDS RF. Analyzed the data: SJL TP. Wrote the paper: SJL MM. Contributed to the discussions of analysis and the writing of the manuscript: SJL RA GDS RF DG TP MM.