About the Authors

Ron K. Hoeke

hoeke@hawaii.edu

Affiliations Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (JIMAR), University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America, Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

Paul L. Jokiel

Affiliation Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, Kaneohe, Hawaii, United States of America

Robert W. Buddemeier

Affiliation Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, Kansas, United States of America

Russell E. Brainard

Affiliation Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RKH PLJ RWB. Performed the experiments: RKH. Analyzed the data: RKH PLJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RKH PLJ RWB REB. Wrote the manuscript: RKH PLJ RWB REB.