About the Authors

Karin E. Darpel

karin.darpel@bbsrc.ac.uk

Affiliation Pirbright Laboratory, Vector-borne Disease Programme, Institute for Animal Health, Woking, United Kingdom

Kathrin F. A. Langner

Current address: Small Animal Hospital, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany

Affiliation Immunology Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany

Manfred Nimtz

Affiliation Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany

Simon J. Anthony

Current address: Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University and EcoHealth Alliance (formerly Wildlife Trust), New York, New York, United States of America

Affiliation Pirbright Laboratory, Vector-borne Disease Programme, Institute for Animal Health, Woking, United Kingdom

Joe Brownlie

Affiliation Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield, United Kingdom

Haru-Hisa Takamatsu

Affiliation Pirbright Laboratory, Vector-borne Disease Programme, Institute for Animal Health, Woking, United Kingdom

Philip S. Mellor

Affiliation Pirbright Laboratory, Vector-borne Disease Programme, Institute for Animal Health, Woking, United Kingdom

Peter P. C. Mertens

Affiliation Pirbright Laboratory, Vector-borne Disease Programme, Institute for Animal Health, Woking, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KED KFAL JB HHT PSM PPCM. Performed the experiments: KED KFAL MN SJA. Analyzed the data: KED HHT PSM PPCM. Wrote the paper: KED SJA HHT PSM PPCM.