About the Authors

Giuseppe Traversa

Affiliation National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy

Stefania Spila-Alegiani

stefania.spila@iss.it

Affiliation National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy

Clara Bianchi

Affiliation National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy

Marta Ciofi degli Atti

Affiliation Medical Direction, The Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy

Luisa Frova

Affiliation Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), Rome, Italy

Marco Massari

Affiliation National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy

Roberto Raschetti

Affiliation National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy

Stefania Salmaso

Affiliation National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy

Gianpaolo Scalia Tomba

Affiliation Department of Mathematics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

and the Hera Study Group

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GT SSA CB MCA RR SS HSG. Performed the experiments: GT SSA CB MCA LF MM GST HSG. Analyzed the data: SSA CB MM GST HSG. Wrote the paper: GT SSA CB MCA LF MM RR SS GST. Review of death certificates: HSG.