About the Authors

Sophia Ananiadou

Contributed equally to this work with: Sophia Ananiadou, Dan Sullivan

Affiliations School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, National Centre for Text Mining, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Dan Sullivan

Contributed equally to this work with: Sophia Ananiadou, Dan Sullivan

dsulliva@vbi.vt.edu

Affiliation Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

William Black

Affiliation National Centre for Text Mining, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Gina-Anne Levow

Affiliation School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Joseph J. Gillespie

Affiliation Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

Chunhong Mao

Affiliation Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

Sampo Pyysalo

Affiliation Department of Computer Science, School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

BalaKrishna Kolluru

Affiliations School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, National Centre for Text Mining, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Junichi Tsujii

Affiliations School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, National Centre for Text Mining, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, Department of Computer Science, School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Bruno Sobral

Affiliation Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SA DS GAL JG BWSS. Performed the experiments: DS WB GAL CM SP BK. Analyzed the data: SA DS WB GAL JG CM SP BK JT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BK. Wrote the paper: SA DS GAL JG CM SP JT BWSS.