About the Authors

J. Jeff McConnell

jmcconnell@gladstone.ucsf.edu

Affiliation Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Larry Bragg

Affiliation Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Stephen Shiboski

Affiliation Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Robert M. Grant

Affiliations Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JJM RG. Performed the experiments: JJM. Analyzed the data: JJM LAB SS. Wrote the paper: JJM. Project Director of the Positive Partners study, developed the sexual network behavioral instrumentation, and oversaw all aspects of study recruitment, biologic and behavioral data collection, and data analysis: JJM. Designed the prototype analysis that revealed patterns of seroadaptation and presented these findings at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, 2003: JJM. Designed the more complete analysis of the larger sample presented here and drafted the manuscript: JJM. Managed the clinical data collection protocol, conducted a redundant review of all data analysis, corrected figures and tables, and reviewed the manuscript: LAB. Provided statistical consultation, modeled the GEE analyses, and provided input on the draft manuscript: SS. Developed the research plan for a study of HIV superinfection that would require obtaining partner status and careful measurement of all sexual: RG.