About the Authors

Jari E. Heikkilä

Contributed equally to this work with: Jari E. Heikkilä, Markus J. V. Vähä-Koskela

jari.heikkila@abo.fi

Affiliation Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland

Markus J. V. Vähä-Koskela

Contributed equally to this work with: Jari E. Heikkilä, Markus J. V. Vähä-Koskela

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada

Janne J. Ruotsalainen

Affiliation A. I. Virtanen Institute, Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland

Miika W. Martikainen

Affiliation A. I. Virtanen Institute, Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland

Marianne M. Stanford

Affiliation Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada

J. Andrea McCart

Affiliation Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, Canada

John C. Bell

Affiliation Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada

Ari E. Hinkkanen

Affiliations Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland, A. I. Virtanen Institute, Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland

Competing Interests

JCB is a co-founder of Jennerex Biotherapeutics and sits on the Board of Directors.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JEH MJVVK JCB AH. Performed the experiments: JEH MJVVK JJR MWM MMMS JAM. Analyzed the data: JEH MJVVK. Wrote the paper: JEH MJVVK AH.