About the Authors

Keertan Dheda

keertan.dheda@uct.ac.za

Current address: Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa

Affiliations Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom

Richard N. Van-Zyl Smit

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Leonardo A. Sechi

Affiliation Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sardinia, Italy

Motasim Badri

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Richard Meldau

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Gregory Symons

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Hoosein Khalfey

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Igshaan Carr

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Alice Maredza

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Rodney Dawson

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Helen Wainright

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Andrew Whitelaw

Affiliations National Health Laboratory Service, Cape Town, South Africa, Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Eric D. Bateman

Affiliation Lung Infection and Immunity Unit & CTBRI, UCT Lung Institute & Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

Alimuddin Zumla

Affiliation Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KD RNVZS RD EDB AZ. Performed the experiments: RNVZS RM AM HW AW. Analyzed the data: KD RNVZS MB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LAS HW AW. Wrote the paper: KD RNVZS RD EDB. Recruited subjects and obtained biological samples: GS HK IC.